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Effect of toothpaste containing enzymes and proteins on gums health

Gingivitis is highly prevalent worldwide, with 46% of adults showing evidence of gingival bleeding and calculus (Community Periodontal Index score of 2), across all age categorie. Gingivitis and periodontitis are derived from the same inflammatory disease with chronic gingival inflammation being the response to the presence of microbial biofilms
One of the most significant risk factors for gingivitis is poor oral hygiene which results in the accumulation of plaque. Dental plaque is a diverse biofilm that develops as bacteria preferentially at-tach to surfaces when the environmental conditions are favourable.

Over time the dental plaque biofilm develops into a complex structure which in health has been shown to provide benefits to the host such as resisting colonization by pathogen. Ultimately an environmental shift occurs, resulting in gingival inflammation changes that favour periodontal pathogens .

Three of the proteins contained in this toothpaste exhibit enzyme activity. Amyloglucosidase and glucose oxidase work together to produce hydrogen peroxide from polyglucans, and lactoperoxidase in the presence of sufficient hydrogen peroxide, catalyses the conversion of thiocyanate to hypothiocyanit. Lactoperoxidase possesses antibacterial activity together with thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide. It makes an intoxicating natural anti-bacterial system, so-called lactoperoxidase system. Lysozyme kills bacteria through dispensing the formation of a glycosidic bond between two bioactive constituents of peptide-glycan, an element of the bacterial cell wall. It generally acts speedily in connection with immunoglobulin-A or lactoferrin. Lysozyme functions as an anti-inflammatory agent, active against E.coli and limits the movement of neutrophils into damaged tissue.

Lactoferrin functions as anti-oxidant by binding the free ferric iron with high affinity. It is helpful for the regulation of iron transport and transcriptional regulation. It also acts as anti-inflammatory, antitumoral and immuno-modulatory. It possesses proteolytic and enzymatic activities.

LPO system together with lactoferrin, lysozyme, and bovine milk immunoglobulins have the ability to inhibit the formation of single-species S. mutans biofilm, whereas, in the case of multispecies biofilms. Many clinical trial using enzymatic toothpaste was observed that the use of enzymatic paste had significantly affected such parameters of gingival health.
It has been shown that treatment with this toothpaste containing these naturally antibacterial enzymes and proteins increases levels of salivary hypothiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide and lysozyme, and decreases the viability of biofilms of oral bacteria in vitro . Thus this toothpaste strengthens the natural antibacterial systems in the oral cavity.

The Lactoperoxidase system is claimed to appropriate for the treatment of gingivitis and paradentosis. Lactoperoxidase has been used in toothpaste or a mouthrinse to reduce oral bacteria and consequently the acid produced by those bacteria.

References

  • A randomised clinical trial to determine the effect of a toothpaste containing enzymes and proteins on gum health over 3 months, Jourbnal of Densitry; vol. 80, suplement 1; January 2019 page: S26-S32
  • The Significance of Lactoperoxidase System in Oral Health: Application and Efficacy in Oral Hygiene Products, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1443

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