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Problem Rongga Mulut Pada Saat Kehamilan

Kehamilan merupakan momen yang membahagiakan bagi wanita. Oleh sebab itu menjaga kesehatan mutlak harus dilakukan oleh setiap wanita hamil termasuk kesehatan rongga mulut. Sejak ada pepatah “satu anak satu gigi” maka keingintahuan tentang kesehatan gigi dan mulut pada ibu hamil menjadi bertambah. Banyak penelitian yang mengungkapkan bahwa pada periode kehamilan, potensi terjadinya kerusakan rongga mulut akan meningkat. Seorang wanita hamil harus mengetahui bahwa infeksi yang terjadi di dalam rongga mulut dapat menjadi ancaman bukan hanya untuk ibu namun juga janinnya.

Dengan mengetahui penyebab terjadinya problem di dalam rongga mulut pada saat kehamilan maka dapat segera dilakukan upaya-upaya pencegahan sehingga ibu hamil beserta janinnya dapat terhindar.

Beberapa masalah rongga mulut yang kerap muncul pada saat kehamilan :

  1. Radang Gusi Radang gusi banyak terjadi pada wanita hamil, yaitu hampir 50% wanita hamil mengalami keluhan radang gusi. Radang gusi menyebabkan gusi menjadi merah, bengkak dan bisa berdarah saat menyikat gigi. Semua orang bisa mengalami radang gusi, namun ternyata wanita hamil memiliki resiko yang lebih tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan karena selama hamil terjadi peningkatan hormon progesteron dan esterogen yang dapat meningkatkan aliran darah ke seluruh tubuh, khususnya ke gusi. Hasil riset membuktikan, penyakit gusi pada ibu hamil bisa meningkatkan resiko kelahiran premature dan bayi lahir dengan berat badan rendah. Perubahan hormon yang terjadi saat kehamilan menyebabkan terjadinya pelunakan pembuluh darah gusi sehingga menimbulkan peradangan pada gusi. Gusi berdarah terjadi akibat pecahnya pembuluh darah di gusi dan bisa menjadi pintu gerbang bagi masuknya bakteri. Bakteri yang ada di dalam plak juga bisa terpacu masuk ke dalam gusi dan menyebabkan infeksi. Hal ini menyebabkan reaksi imun sistem dan prostaglandin yang memicu timbulnya kontraksi yang dapat mengakibatkan bayi lahir premature.
  2. Gigi berlubang (Caries / Tooth Erosion) Gigi adalah bagian yang paling kuat dari tubuh manusia, namun akan terlarut bila terkena asam. Pada kehamilan, terjadi peningkatan kadar asam di dalam rongga mulut, belum lagi jika wanita hamil mengalami mual dan muntah yang dapat mengakibatkan paparan asam lambung pada gigi dan gusi. Hilangnya permukaan gigi (demineralisasi), terutama melalui erosi akibat asam terkait dengan mual dan muntah yang berulang selama kehamilan.
  3. Bau Mulut (Pregnancy Halitosis) Bau mulut atau kerap disebut halitosis yang terjadi saat kehamilan berhubungan erat dengan perubahan hormonal. Saat kehamilan, produksi air ludah berkurang sehingga sebagian besar wanita hamil mengalami mulut kering. Peningkatan progesteron yang mencapai sepuluh kali lipat saat kehamilan menyebabkan penurunan respon imun dan peningkatan pertumbuhan bakteri di rongga mulut. Peningkatan progesteron juga menyebabkan komposisi bakteri di rongga mulut berubah, yaitu bakteri anaerob gram negatif berkembang pesat yang dapat memicu terjadinya bau mulut. Beberapa hal yang dapat dilakukan untuk mencegah dan meminimalkan problem rongga mulut saat kehamilan adalah sebagai berikut :
    • Ibu hamil harus lebih rajin menjaga kebersihan rongga mulutnya. Jika terjadi mual dan muntah, segera bersihkan mulut.
    • Kontrol rutin ke dokter gigi selama masa kehamilan.
    • Gunakan pasta gigi enzim selama masa kehamilan karena pasta gigi enzim tidak mengandung Sodium Lauril Sulfat (deterjen), sehingga tidak membuat mulut menjadi semakin kering dan kandungan colostrumnya akan berfungsi meningkatkan kelembaban rongga mulut. Kandungan enzim-enzim dan protein dalam pasta gigi akan meningkatkan fungsi pertahanan air ludah sehingga bakteri dapat dikendalikan. Jika bakteri dapat dikendalikan maka masalah di rongga mulut selama kehamilan akan dapat ditekan.

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